What To Study

“HPTS Sport Pilot Guide of What to Study”

Overall, you follow through the “Sport and Private Pilot Training Syllabus & Workbook” ground and flight lessons “Assignments For This Lesson” in order for the flight and ground lessons.

The flight “Assignments For This Lesson” are also listed here so they can be printed out and accomplished along with the flight simulation portion of the training.

About this What to Study Guide

Since there is more reading materials than necessary in the FAA publications for the sport pilot and private pilot certificates for LSA, this guide tells you what to study and what to ignore for the FAA books/materials including:

• FAA Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (8083-25A)

• FAA Airplane Flying Handbook (8083-3A)

Follow this guide on what to study and what not to study. It is designed for sport pilots seeking airplane category privileges.

Study all material unless instructed not to in this guide, or study modifiations as outlined in this guide.

If a chapter is not listed in this study guide than it should be studied in its entirety.

The Sport Pilot Checkride book also provides specific information for light-port aircraft.

Study Tips: 1. Cross off and modify items you need to help you study as you go and provide a working document for future use. 2. Go over this with your instructor to make notes and prepare for your practical test (check ride).

Vintage or older light-sport aircraft (LSA) airplanes meeting the light-sport aircraft criteria such as Piper J-3 Cubs, etc. are called Standard category airplanes.

“Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge” 8083-25A (2008 version)

Chapter 1 Introduction to Flying (8083-25A) This is a good general chapter to read but the specifics for Sport Pilot and Light-sport Aircraft are better covered in the specific category handbooks.

Chapter 2 and 3 read all.

Chapter 4 Aerodynamics of Flight (8083-25A)

• Page 4-28 “LOAD FACTORS IN AIRPLANE DESIGN” is for standard category aircraft. S-LSA and E-LSA will have similar load limits but are specified in the Pilot Operating Handbook (POH).

• Ignore “High Speed Flight” Page 4-39 through the end of chapter.

Chapter 5 read all.

Chapter 6 Aircraft Systems (8083-25A) • Page 6-6 to 6-7 ignore “ADJUSTABLE-PITCH PROPELLER” section. Start back with the INDUCTION SYSTEMS section. • Page 6-8 “MIXTURE CONTROL” Most light sport aircraft two stroke have ground adjustable jets, or automatic mixture control on the four stroke engines. Some LSA (Continental engines) especially Standard category (vintage LSA) do use mixture controls. However, some Special LSA do use mixture controls (Rotax).

• Page 6-11 through 6-14 ignore “SUPERCHARGERS and TURBOSUPERCHARGERS” Only a few four stroke LSA engines have turbo or super chargers. Only study if your aircraft has this system.

• Page 6-16 “OIL SYSTEMS” is for 4 stroke only where 2 stroke engines are different. • Page 6-19 ignore (FADEC) since these are not typically used on smaller engines. • Page 6-20 through 6-24 ignore TURBINE ENGINES section • Page 6-28 through 6-30 “ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS” is generally more complicated with more accessories, but basically the same general systems are used for LSA.

• Page 6-30 “HYDRAULIC SYSTEM” is only for aircraft with these types of systems. Many LSA use hydraulic brakes. • Page 6-32 ignore “PRESSURIZED AIRCRAFT” section and everything through the end of this chapter.

Chapter 7 Flight Instruments (8083-25A) This section is more detailed than the typical Light-Sport Aircraft systems. Some Powered Parachutes have no flight instruments and can ignore this section completely. Only study the instruments you have.

• Page 7-1 “PILOT STATIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS”, lower speed and/or open cockpit aircraft may not have a pilot tube heater or separate static line and port which just reads the ambient static pressure. • Page 7-12 (EFD) section is generally not on LSA but more complex aircraft.

• Page 7-14 through 7-15 Ignore ADC section • Page 7-15 ignore “GYROSCOPIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS” section through unless your aircraft has these instruments (not typical on LSA which use electric intruments).

Chapter 8 and 9 read all.

Chapter 10 Aircraft Performance (8083-25A)

• Page 10-17 “PERFORMANCE CHARTS” section through Page 10-26.

• Most Light-sport aircraft will not have as detailed performance data or details as presented here. It is most likely there will be one situation at Sea Level Standard conditions plus some increases in altitude and ambient temperature with maximum gross weight where the takeoff distance and/or distance over a 50 foot obstacle is included. Reviewing these charts revels that there are great differences in takeoff distances, distance over a 50 foot obstacle with downwind takeoffs, high density altitude, uphill/rough field, etc.

• Page 1–26 ignore “TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE” and everything through the end of Chapter 10.

Chapter 11 read all.

Chapter 12 Weather Reports, Forecasts, and Charts (8083-25A) sheet 2 The FAA covers significantly more weather Reports, Forecasts, and Charts than needed for the Sport Pilot, however, the more weather information you gather, the better an evaluation you can do.

There is a great difference in a Sport Pilot flying a Powered Parachutes around the pattern, to Light-sport airplanes cruising at 120 knots and going on long cross-country trips.

Many pilots flying around in the pattern observe the weather only at the field/airport and feel this is an acceptable weather analysis. This is done by experienced pilots and works most of the time. However, knowing how hard the wind is blowing 3000 feet above you, plus what the wind is predicted to do during the time of your flight, should be the minimum preflight weather analysis in addition to observation the winds and sky for these local flights.

The high-performance cross-country pilot does need more analysis and should study most areas in this section.

The “Weather to Fly for Sport Pilots” DVD is the time proven system for Sport Pilots and should be used by all to evaluate the weather to make the important go/no go decision.

Here are the specific FAA reports I recommend that are particularly useful for all sport pilots.

Page 12-5 “WEATHER BRIEFINGS – STANDARD/ABBREVIATED/OUTLOOK” great to call 1-800-WX-Brief and get the report from an aviation specialist.

Page 12-6 “AVIATION ROUTINE WEATHER REPORT” (METAR) what the conditions are at specific airport locations. Great to find out if your airport is fogged in or blown out before you drive there. These are now decoded on the Internet so you do not have to memorize the coding as discussed in the book.

Page 12-10 “TERMINAL AERODROME FORCASTS” (TAF) what are the predicted conditions at specific locations. Great to get predicted conditions to have find out what the predictions are for the airport being fogged in or blown out in the near future. These are now decoded on the internet, so you do not have to memorize the coding as discussed in the book.

Page 12-14 “WINDS AND TEMPERATURE ALOFT FORECAST (FD)” a great tool for predicting winds above and in the near future. The best tool for determining wind limitations for Light-Sport Aircraft.

Page 12-18 “SIGNIFICANT WEATHER PROGNOSTIC CHARTS” predict the big picture for fronts approaching and isobars/wind.

Page 12-21 ELECTRONIC FLIGHT DISPLAYS(EFD)/MULTI_FUNCTION DISPLAY (MFD) WEATHER Most LSA do not have EFD/MFD so this section can be skipped to the end of the chapter unless you have this weather sophisticated weather system in your aircraft.

Chapter 13 read all.

Chapter 14 Airspace (8083-25A) It is important to note that the minimum visibility for Sport Pilots is 3 statute miles and 10,000 feet MSL maximum altitude in FAR 61.315 which overrides the airspace listed in this chapter.

Chapter 15 Navigation (8083-25A) Page 15-5 to 15-8 “MEASUREMENT OF DIRECTION” section details of a magnetic compass is not needed if there is no magnetic compass in the aircraft. Many LSA use a GPS instead of a magnetic compass for measurement of direction.

Page 15-21 to 15-32 ignore “RADIO NAVIGATION” section unless you have this equipment in your aircraft and pick it back up at the GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM.

Chapter 16 Aeromedical Factors (8083-25A) Page 16-18 ignore “NIGHT VISION” and everything to the end of Chapter 16.

Airplane Flying Handbook FAA-H-8083-3

What to study and what not to study. Sport Pilots study all areas except those listed below. Notes on differences are also included.

Chapter 1 – Introduction to Flight Training Role of Examiner – Sport Pilot DPE are also national based in addition to local FSDO and can be found at www.faa.gov/licenses_certificates/airmen_certification/sport_pilot/

Chapter 2 – Ground Operations Visual inspection – Typically an FCC radio station license is not required in a LSA. For S-LSA Safety Directives are used issued by the manufacturer instead of Airworthiness Directives for Standard Category Aircraft.

Fuel and Oil – Auto gas is used in many LSA and does not need and STC. Check POH for details on your engine. Some LSA may not have fuel drains because they use auto fuel containing alcohol which absorbs water.

Engine Starting – RPM of four stroke ROTAX engines is higher with minimum idle setting at 1400 RPM and recommended setting at 1600 to 1800 for smooth operations. Hand Propping – Hand propping for ROTAX four stroke engines is very difficult because of the gearbox does not allow the engine to get up to RPM enough to produce a spark. Do not hand prop a ROTAX engine. Charge the battery or jump it with a car battery and cables if necessary for typical 12 volt systems.

Chapter 3 – Basic Flight Maneuvers Integrated Flight Instruction – Some LSA may not have an attitude indicator so reference can be made to the other flight instruments installed in the aircraft.

Chapter 4 Slow Flight, Stalls and Spins Spins – Many S-LSA are not approved for spins but the knowledge of spin procedures should be covered in flight instruction.

Chapter 5 read all

Chapter 6 – Ground Reference Maneuvers All “Eights” maneuvers are not required for Sport Pilot proficiency.

Chapter 7 Airport Traffic Patterns Slower airplanes should do smaller patterns called “tight” or “inside” patterns, so the aircraft is completing the pattern in the same time as the faster aircraft.

Chapter 8 read all

Chapter 9 Performance Maneuvers Steep Spiral, Chandelle, and Lazy Eight maneuvers are not required for Sport or Private Pilots.

Chapter 10 Night Operations This is a good chapter for Sport Pilots to review because it would be relevant for flying after sunset during twilight when conditions similar to night flying are possible and should be understood.

Chapter 11 Transition to Complex Airplanes Wing Flaps – Read and study this section on wing flaps but ignore the remainder of the chapter.

Chapters 12, 14 and 15  ignore transition chapters to Multiengine, turbo, jet airplanes. Ignore these non-applicable chapters.

Chapter 13 – Transition to Tailwheel Airplanes Ignore this chapter unless you are learning or transitioning to a tail wheel airplane.

Chapter 16 Emergency Procedures Section on Landing Gear Malfunction – Although the LSA does not have a retractable landing gear. This should be studied in case of a situation where a fixed landing gear is damaged.

Section on Inadvertent Flight into IMC Conditions – Sport Pilots are not trained to use instruments for flight nor do all LSA have attitude indicators. This is a good section to read and understand but any flight into IMC conditions, you should immediately turn and exit the conditions and not try and fly by instruments.