Pilot Capabilities and Aircraft Limitations – Advanced maneuvers introduction, low approach and stalls.
Ground lesson 5 should be completed before this flight lesson.

Objective:
For the student to be introduced ground reference low approaches, steep turns, power-off stalls, and power-on stalls.

Assignment for this lesson:
Read and understand FAA Airplane Flying Handbook book Chapter “ 4 Slow Flight, Stalls and Spins”, Chapter “9. Performance Maneuvers” as specified in “HPTS Sport Pilot Guide of What to Study”.

Content:

  • New: Set the weather to be early in the morning (this provides a shadow on the runway so you can see high high you are of the runway for the maneuver). Set up the aircraft to be in a three mile final approach to the Carson City runway 27. Note: this is a direct setting in the X-Plane program under the airport/location setting. For FSX, set up to be on runway 27, than go to the map and move the airplane back about 3 times the runway distance headed for the runway, change the altitude to 5700 feet, and set the airspeed at 60 knots). This will be the starting position for each of the maneuvers in this lesson.
  • New: Low approach maneuver – Start the flight at this 3 mile final approach position. Maintain 60 knots but reduce throttle to approach the runway at the proper glide slope where the approach VASI lights show the proper glide slope to the runway (half red – half white). Make sure you can see over the instrument panel by moving the eye point up as required but can still see the airspeed indicator. Proceed on this glide slope until you get to the runway and than increase power to remain level about 5 feet over the runway maintaining 60 knots. This is a very difficult maneuver. Once you get to the end of the runway, apply full power and do a go around. This is the end of the maneuver. Practice this maneuver until you get it under control.
  • New: Performance maneuver 30 degree bank- Start at the 3 mile final approach position at 60 knots. Climb to 6000 feet and stabilize straight and level at 60 knots. Than do a 30 degree banked turn to the left with a complete 360 degree circle to come out at the same heading. Maintain altitude and airspeed. (Some throttle may be needed in the turn to maintain altitude.) Do a 30 degree banked turn to the right with a complete 360 degree circle to come out at the same heading. Maintain altitude and airspeed. At any time during this maneuver you get to the airport, turn 90 degrees to the left at a 30 degree banked turn and fly to the south. Use this 180 degree heading as your start and end position for each maneuver. Continue to do these left and and right hand 360 degree turns until you can maintain flight within 200 feet altitude, 20 degrees heading, and +/- 10 knots airspeed.
  • New: Performance maneuver 45 degree bank- Start at the 3 mile final approach position at 60 knots. Climb to 6000 feet and stabelize straight and level at 60 knots. Than do a 45 degree banked turn to the left with a complete 360 degree circle to come out at the same heading. Maintain altitude and airspeeed. (Some throttle will be needed in the turn to maintain altitude.) Do a 45 degree banked turn to the right with a complete 360 degree circle to come out at the same heading. Maintain altitude and airspeeed. At any time during this maneuver you get to the airport, turn 90 degrees to the left at a 45 degree banked turn and fly to the south. Use this 180 degree heading as your start and end position for each maneuver. Continue to do these left and and right hand 360 degree turns until you can maintain flight within 200 feet altitude, 20 degrees heading, and +/- 10 knots airspeed.
  • New: Power off stalls – Start at the 3 mile final approach position at 60 knots. Climb to 6500 feet and stabilize straight and level at 60 knots. Do a 180 degree clearing turn at a 30 degree bank angle to the left to clear the area of other aircraft. Reduce throttle to idle, add landing configuration flaps. Start slowing the airplane up gradually until it stalls. Stick to the middle and forward to break the stall, keep the airplane headed in the same direction with the rudder, and apply full power to minimize altitude loss and move the flaps to takeoff position. Climb back to 6500 again. You should be on a 90 degree heading. Do a clearing turn to the right this time (same 30 degree bank/180 degree direction change) and repeat the maneuver. Continue repeating this maneuver until you get it down. Note that some flight simulator airplanes may not gave the best simulation for stalls so if it does not stall and/or recover that easy it may be a limitation to the airplane software.
  • New: Power on stalls – Start at the 3 mile final approach position at 60 knots. Climb to 6500 feet and stabilize straight and level at 60 knots. Do a 180 degree clearing turn at a 30 degree bank angle to the left to clear the area of other aircraft. Increase the throttle to full. Start slowing the airplane up gradually  until it stalls. When it starts bucking, or stalls, move the stick to the middle and forward to break the stall, and keep the airplane headed in the same direction with the rudder. Climb back to 6500 again. You should be on a 90 degree heading. Do a clearing turn to the right this time (same 30 degree bank/180 degree direction change) and repeat the maneuver. Continue repeating this maneuver until you get it down. Note that some flight simulator airplanes may not gave the best simulation for stalls so if it does not stall and/or recover that easy it may be a limitation to the airplane software.

____ Power-on stalls ____ Power-off stalls ____ Performance Maneuver – (Steep turns)
____ Low approach ground reference maneuver

Completion Standards:
This module is complete when the student can maintain flight within 200 feet altitude, 20 degrees heading, and +/- 10 knots airspeed while performing the maneuvers listed in the content of this module.